Summary of Study ST001996

This data is available at the NIH Common Fund's National Metabolomics Data Repository (NMDR) website, the Metabolomics Workbench,, where it has been assigned Project ID PR001268. The data can be accessed directly via it's Project DOI: 10.21228/M8T39S This work is supported by NIH grant, U2C- DK119886.


This study contains a large results data set and is not available in the mwTab file. It is only available for download via FTP as data file(s) here.

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Study IDST001996
Study TitlePolyamine import and accumulation causes immunomodulation in macrophages engulfing apoptotic cells (Part 1)
Study SummaryPhagocytosis of apoptotic cells, termed efferocytosis, is critical for tissue homeostasis and drives anti-inflammatory programming in engulfing macrophages. Here, we assess metabolites in naïve and inflammatory macrophages following engulfment of multiple cellular and non-cellular targets. Efferocytosis leads to unique increases in the arginine-derived polyamines, spermidine and spermine, in vitro and in vivo. Surprisingly, polyamine accumulation after efferocytosis does not arise from retention of apoptotic cell metabolites or de novo synthesis, but from enhanced polyamine import that is dependent on Rac1, actin, and PI3 kinase. Blocking polyamine import prevents efferocytosis from suppressing macrophage IL-1or IL-6. This identifies efferocytosis as a trigger for polyamine import and accumulation, and imported polyamines as mediators of efferocytosis-induced immune reprogramming.
University of Colorado Denver
Last NameHaines
First NameJulie
Address12801 E 17th Ave, Room 1303, Aurora, Colorado, 80045, USA
Submit Date2021-11-22
Raw Data AvailableYes
Raw Data File Type(s)raw(Thermo)
Analysis Type DetailLC-MS
Release Date2021-12-08
Release Version1
Julie Haines Julie Haines application/zip

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Sample Preparation:

Sampleprep ID:SP002083
Sampleprep Summary:To process cells for assessment of intracellular metabolites, cells were pelleted at 400xg in tubes coated with 0.06% BSA. Supernatant was aspirated and discarded; residual liquid was carefully wicked away from the pellet with a kimwipe. Dry pellets were immediately snap frozen and stored at -80C until processing. To process culture supernatants for assessment of metabolites, supernatant was centrifuged at 400xg to pellet any cells. Cell-free supernatant was then transferred to a fresh tube, snap frozen, and stored at -80C until processing. Ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) was performed by the University of Colorado School of Medicine Metabolomics Core. Metabolites from frozen cell pellets were extracted at 2e6 cells/mL in ice cold 5:3:2 MeOH:acetonitrile:water (v/v/v). Media was thawed on ice and a 10 L aliquot treated with 240 L of the same extraction solution. Extractions were carried out using vigorous vortexing for 30 min at 4C. Supernatants were clarified by centrifugation (10 min, 18,000 g, 4C) and analyzed using a Thermo Vanquish UHPLC coupled to a Thermo Q Exactive mass spectrometer. Global metabolomics analyses were performed using a 3 min isocratic run in positive and negative ion modes (separate runs) as described previously (Nemkov et al., 2015, Nemkov et al., 2017); stable isotope tracing samples were analyzed using a 5 min C18 gradient in positive and negative ion modes (separate runs) as described (Nemkov et al., 2019, Gehrke et al., 2019). For all analyses, the MS scanned in MS1 mode across the m/z range of 65 to 950. Peaks were annotated (in conjunction with the KEGG database), integrated, and quality control performed using Maven (Princeton University) as described. Stable isotope tracing results were isotopically corrected for the natural abundance of 13C1, 13C2, 15N1, and 15N2 (Nemkov et al., 2017).