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MB Sample ID: SA218639

Local Sample ID:D1_TF_D_Hilic_Pos
Subject ID:SU002369
Subject Type:Human
Subject Species:Homo sapiens
Taxonomy ID:9606
Age Or Age Range:61-91

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Collection ID:CO002362
Collection Summary:Bone samples (ca. 1 cm3) of the anterior midshaft tibia (left) were collected prior to placement of the body outdoors, and again upon retrieval of the completely skeletonized remains (right). Each body was in “fresh” stage of decomposition when pre-placement samples were taken, and in “skeletonization” stage when post-placement samples were collected, based on scoring of the gross morphological changes37. The duration of each placement and the deposition context are reported in Table 1. The soft tissue was incised with a disposable scalpel, and a 12 V Dremel cordless lithium-ion drill with a diamond wheel drill bit was used at max. 5000 revolutions to collect ~1 cm3 of bone. Sampling instruments were cleaned with bleach and deionised water between each individual sample collection. A total of eight samples were collected in Ziploc bags, transferred immediately to a -80 °C freezer, and subsequently shipped overnight on dry ice to the Forensic Science Unit at Northumbria University, U.K. The samples were then transferred to a lockable freezer at -20 °C as per UK Human Tissue Act regulations (licence number 12495). The bone samples were defrosted, and fine powder was obtained with a Dremel drill equipped with diamond-tipped drill bits operated at speed 5000 rpms, to avoid heat damage caused by the friction with the bone. The collected powder was homogenised and stored in 2 mL protein LoBind tubes (Eppendorf UK Limited, Stevenage, UK) at -80 °C until extraction and testing. The powder sample was later divided into 25 mg aliquots. The research and bone sample analyses were reviewed and approved by the Ethics committee at Northumbria University (ref. 11623).
Sample Type:Bone
Storage Conditions:-20℃